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\title
[Bounds for sets with few distances distinct modulo a prime ideal]
{Bounds for sets with few distances distinct modulo a prime ideal}
\author[\initial{H.} Nozaki]{\firstname{Hiroshi} \lastname{Nozaki}}
\address{Aichi University of Education\\
Department of Mathematics Education\\
1 Hirosawa, Igaya-cho\\
Kariya, Aichi\\
448-8542 (Japan)}
\email{hnozaki@auecc.aichi-edu.ac.jp}
\keywords{$s$-distance set, algebraic number field}
\subjclass{05D05, 05B30}
\begin{document}
\begin{abstract}
Let $\mathcal{O}_K$ be the ring of integers of an algebraic number field $K$ embedded into $\mathbb{C}$.
Let $X$ be a subset of the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^d$, and $D(X)$ be the set of the squared distances of two distinct points in $X$.
In this paper,
we prove that if $D(X)\subset \mathcal{O}_K$ and there exist $s$ values $a_1,\ldots, a_s \in \mathcal{O}_K$ distinct modulo a prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}$ of $\mathcal{O}_K$ such that each $a_i$ is not zero modulo $\mathfrak{p}$ and each element of $D(X)$ is congruent to some $a_i$, then $|X| \leq \binom{d+s}{s}+\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}$.
\end{abstract}
\maketitle
\section{Introduction}
This paper is devoted to giving an upper bound on the cardinalities of certain finite sets $X$ in a metric space $M$, that have some special properties of the values of distances appearing in $X$.
A finite set $X$ in $M$ is called an {\it $s$-distance set} if the number of distances of two distinct points in $X$ is equal to $s$.
One of the major problems for $s$-distance sets is to determine the largest possible $s$-distance sets for given $s$, that is motivated from the extremal set theory.
For this purpose, we need to give (or improve) upper bounds on the size and construct large sets.
For small $s$, there are remarkable successful cases that can determine the largest sets, for example, $2$-distance sets on a Euclidean sphere \cite{GY18}, sets of equiangular lines in Euclidean spaces \cite{JTYZZ21}, and several $s$-distance sets in the real, complex, or quaternionic projective spaces \cite{L92} or in polynomial association schemes \cite{D73,DGS77,DL98}.
In the literature of combinatorial geometry, upper bounds for $s$-distance sets for $L$-intersecting families have been obtained.
An {\it $L$-intersecting family} $\mathfrak{F}$ is a family of subsets of a finite set $F$
that satisfies $|A \cap B| \in L$ for any distinct $A,B \in \mathfrak{F}$ for some $L\subset \{0,1,\ldots, n-1\}$, where $|F|=n$.
An $L$-intersecting family $\mathfrak{F}$ is said to be {\it $k$-uniform} if $|A|=k$ for each $A \in \mathfrak{F}$ for some constant $k$.
For $k$-uniform $L$-intersecting families $\mathfrak{F}$,
Ray-Chaudhuri and Wilson \cite{R-CW75} proved an upper bound $|\mathfrak{F}| \leq \binom{n}{s}$, where $|L|=s$. This case corresponds to $s$-distance sets in Johnson association schemes.
After this work, Frankl and Wilson \cite{FW81} obtained $|\mathfrak{F}|\leq \sum_{i=0}^s\binom{n}{i}$ without the assumption of $k$-uniform.
Frankl and Wilson \cite{FW81} also proved a {\it modular version} of the upper bound for $k$-uniform $L$-intersecting families.
Namely they interpreted the sizes of the intersections as elements of $\mathbb{Z}/p \mathbb{Z}$ for some prime number $p$.
Suppose the set $L$ has only $s$ elements distinct modulo $p$, and note that $|L|$ may be greater than $s$.
For $k$-uniform $L$-intersecting families $\mathfrak{F}$, if
$k \not \equiv a \pmod{p}$ for each $a \in L$, then Frankl--Wilson \cite{FW81} showed that $|\mathfrak{F}| \leq \binom{n}{s}$.
Note that this is the same upper bound as that obtained under the assumption $|L|=s$.
For $L$-intersecting families $\mathfrak{F}$ with $r$ different sizes of elements of $\mathfrak{F}$ modulo $p$,
Alon, Babai, and Suzuki \cite{ABS91} proved that $|\mathfrak{F}|\leq \sum_{i=0}^{r-1}\binom{n}{s-i}$ under a certain weak assumption which is simplified by \cite{HK15}.
The upper bound in \cite{ABS91} is proved by Koornwinder's method \cite{K77}, which gives upper bounds on the size $|X|$ by proving the linear independence of some polynomial functions that have a bijective correspondence to $X$.
We have upper bounds for Euclidean $s$-distance sets with several conditions, which are counterparts of that of $L$-intersecting families. Let $X$ be an $s$-distance set in the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^d$.
For $X$ in the unit sphere $S^{d-1}$, which corresponds to the condition of $k$-uniform, Delsarte, Goethals, and Seidel \cite{DGS77} proved that $|X| \leq \binom{d+s-1}{s}+\binom{d+s-2}{s-1}$.
With no assumption, Bannai, Bannai, and Stanton \cite{BBS83} proved that $|X| \leq \binom{d+s}{s}$.
For $X$ in $r$ concentric spheres, which corresponds to the condition of $r$ different sizes, Bannai, Kawasaki, Nitamizu, and Sato \cite{BKNS03}
obtained that $|X| \leq \sum_{i=0}^{2r-1}\binom{d+s-1-i}{s-i}$.
Recently simple alternative proofs of these upper bounds are given in \cite{HR21,PP21}.
Blokhuis \cite{BT} gave a modular version of upper bounds for Euclidean sets, assuming that the squared distances are rational integers. Let $D(X)$ be the set of the squared Euclidean distances between two distinct points of $X$.
\begin{theorem}[{mod-$p$ bound \cite{BT}}] \label{thm:modp}
Let $X$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}^d$, and $p$ a prime number.
Suppose $D(X)$ is a subset of rational integers $\mathbb{Z}$.
If there exist $a_1,\ldots, a_s \in \mathbb{Z}$ distinct modulo $p$ such that
\begin{enumerate}
\item for each $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$, $a_i \not \equiv 0 \pmod{p}$ and
\item for each $\alpha \in D(X)$, there exists $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$ such that $\alpha \equiv a_i \pmod{p}$,
\end{enumerate}
then
\[
|X| \leq \binom{d+s}{s}+\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}.
\]
\end{theorem}
For sets in a sphere, several projective spaces, or $Q$-polynomial association schemes, Theorem~\ref{thm:modp} can be analogously obtained. However, the $r$-concentric spherical version is still open.
The assumption $D(X) \subset \mathbb{Z}$ in Theorem~\ref{thm:modp} is surely strong, and the sets to which the theorem can be applied are restricted.
In this paper, we extend Theorem~\ref{thm:modp} to
the ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$ of an algebraic number field $K$, and any prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}$ of it. Note that throughout this paper, we fix an embedding of $K$ into $\mathbb{C}$, and $K$ is interpreted as a subfield of $\mathbb{C}$.
We use Koornwinder's method to prove this mod-$\mathfrak{p}$ upper bound. However the method
to prove the linear independence of polynomial functions is new.
In the proof, the localization $A_{\mathfrak{p}}$ of $A=\mathcal{O}_K$ by a prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}$ plays a key role and Nakayama's lemma is applied for a certain finitely generated $A_{\mathfrak{p}}$-module.
This method is purely algebraic and uniformly applicable to the polynomial spaces \cite{G89}, \cite[Sections 14--16]{Gb}, which includes the Euclidean sphere, the real, complex or quaternionic projective spaces (see \cite{DL98,L92} for the theory of $s$-distance set in these projective spaces), or $Q$-polynomial association schemes (which include the theory of $L$-intersecting family as codes of Johnson or Hamming schemes) \cite{D73}.
The paper is organized as follows.
In Section \ref{sec:2},
we introduce basic terminology and results about algebraic number fields.
In Section \ref{sec:3},
we prove a generalization of Theorem~\ref{thm:modp} (mod-$\mathfrak{p}$ bound) for
the ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$ of an algebraic number field $K$ and a prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}\subset \mathcal{O}_K$.
We also comment on the version of the theorem for an ideal that may not be prime.
In Section~\ref{sec:4},
we extend the LRS type theorem proved in \cite{LRS77,N11}.
Namely, if the cardinality of an $s$-distance set is relatively large,
then a certain ratio of squared distances must be an algebraic integer (see Theorem~\ref{thm:LRS}).
We explain the relationship between the LRS type theorem and mod-$\mathfrak{p}$ bound, which can refine an upper bound on the size of an $s$-distance set with given distances.
\section{Preliminaries} \label{sec:2}
%In this section, we give basic terminologies and its properties that are used in the paper.
An extension field $K$ of rationals $\mathbb{Q}$ is an {\it algebraic number field} if the degree $[K:\mathbb{Q}]$ is finite.
An algebraic number field $K$ can be embedded into $\mathbb{C}$, and $K$ is always identified with a fixed specific subfield of $\mathbb{C}$.
The {\it ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$} is the ring consisting of all algebraic integers in $K$, where an {\it algebraic integer} is a complex number which is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coefficients.
It is well known that $K$ is the quotient field of $\mathcal{O}_K$, a prime ideal of $\mathcal{O}_K$ is maximal, $\mathcal{O}_K$ is a finitely generated free $\mathbb{Z}$-module, and $\mathcal{O}_K$ may not be a principal ideal domain.
For easy examples, if $K=\mathbb{Q}$, then $\mathcal{O}_K=\mathbb{Z}$.
If $K=\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d})$ for a square-free integer $d$, then
\[
\mathcal{O}_K=\left\lbrace \begin{array}{ll}
\mathbb{Z}+ \frac{1+\sqrt{d}}{2} \mathbb{Z} & \text{ if $ d \equiv 1 \!\pmod{4}$},\\
\mathbb{Z}+ \sqrt{d} \mathbb{Z} & \text{ if $ d \equiv 2,3 \!\pmod{4}$}.
\end{array}\right.
\]
Suppose a ring is commutative and contains the identity.
For a ring $A$, $(A,\mathfrak{m})$ is a {\it local ring} if $A$ has a unique maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$.
It is well known that for a ring $A$ and its maximal ideal $\mathfrak{p}\subset A$, we can construct a local ring $(A_{\mathfrak{p}}, \mathfrak{p} A_{\mathfrak{p}})$.
For $A=\mathcal{O}_K$, the local ring is
\[
A_\mathfrak{p}=S^{-1} A=\{a/s \in K \mid a \in A, s \in S\},
\]
where $S=A \setminus \mathfrak{p}$.
Its unique maximal ideal is $\mathfrak{p} A_{\mathfrak{p}}$, which is the ideal of
$A_{\mathfrak{p}}$ generated by the elements of $\mathfrak{p}$. Note that $A_\mathfrak{p}$ is a principal ideal domain.
The natural map $f: A/\mathfrak{p} \rightarrow A_\mathfrak{p}/ \mathfrak{p} A_\mathfrak{p}$ is a field isomorphism.
The following theorem is called Nakayama's lemma, which plays a key role in a proof of the main theorem. For a local ring $(A,\mathfrak{m})$, the ideal $I$ in Theorem~\ref{thm:nakayama} is $\mathfrak{m}$.
\begin{theorem}\label{thm:nakayama}
Let $A$ be a ring. Let $I$ be an ideal that is contained in all maximal ideals of $A$. Let $M$ be a finitely generated $A$-module.
If $IM=M$, then $M=\{0\}$.
\end{theorem}
In order to prove the main theorem, we use the polynomial
\[
f_{\x}(\boldsymbol{\xi})=\prod_{i=1}^s (||\x-\boldsymbol{\xi}||^2-a_i),
\]
for $\x \in \mathbb{R}^d$, $a_i \in \mathbb{R}$, and variables $\boldsymbol{\xi}=(\xi_1,\ldots, \xi_d)$, where $||\x||$ is the Euclidean norm of $\x$. By proving the linear independence of $\{f_{\x}\}_{\x \in X}$ as polynomial functions, the cardinality $|X|$ can be bounded above by the dimension of a certain linear space that contains $f_{\x}$. We use the same polynomial space used in Bannai--Bannai--Stanton \cite{BBS83}.
For $\xi_0=\xi_1^2+\cdots + \xi_d^2$, we define the polynomial space $P_s(\mathbb{R}^d)$ that consists of all real polynomial functions on $\mathbb{R}^d$ which are spanned by $\xi_0^{\lambda_0}\xi_1^{\lambda_1}\cdots \xi_d^{\lambda_d}$ with $\sum_{i=0}^d\lambda_i\leq s$.
The dimension of $P_s(\mathbb{R}^d)$ is equal to $\binom{d+s}{s}+\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}$.
\section{Bounds for $s$-distance sets modulo $\mathfrak{p}$} \label{sec:3}
The following is the main theorem in this paper.
\begin{theorem}[mod-$\mathfrak{p}$ bound] \label{thm:main}
Let $X$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}^d$, and $A=\mathcal{O}_K$ the ring of integers of an algebraic number field $K$.
Let $\mathfrak{p}$ be a prime ideal of $A$.
Suppose $D(X) \subset A_{\mathfrak{p}}$.
If there exist $a_1,\ldots, a_s \in A_\mathfrak{p}$ distinct modulo $\mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}$ such that
\begin{enumerate}
\item for each $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$, $a_i \not \equiv 0 \pmod{\mathfrak{p}A_\mathfrak{p}}$ and
\item for each $\alpha \in D(X)$, there exists $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$ such that $\alpha \equiv a_i \pmod{\mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}}$,
\end{enumerate}
then
\[
|X| \leq \binom{d+s}{s}+\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}.
\]
\end{theorem}
\begin{proof}
For each $\x \in X$, we define the polynomial $f_{\x}(\boldsymbol{\xi})\in P_s(\mathbb{R}^d)$ as
\[
f_{\x}(\boldsymbol{\xi})=\prod_{i=1}^s (||\x-\boldsymbol{\xi}||^2-a_i),
\]
where if needed, we replace $a_i$ with a real value equivalent to $a_i$ modulo $\mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}$.
These polynomials satisfy
\begin{equation} \label{eq:f_x(x)}
f_{\x}(\boldsymbol{x})=(-1)^s \prod_{i=1}^s a_i \not\equiv 0 \pmod{\mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}},
\end{equation}
and
\begin{equation} \label{eq:f_x(y)}
f_{\x}(\boldsymbol{y}) \equiv 0 \pmod{\mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}}
\end{equation}
for $\x \ne \y \in X$.
We prove $\{f_{\x}\}_{\x \in X}$ is linearly independent as polynomial functions on $\mathbb{R}^d$.
Assume there exist $m_{\x} \in \mathbb{R}$ such that
\begin{equation} \label{eq:=0}
\sum_{\x \in X} m_{\x} f_{\x}(\boldsymbol{\xi})=0.
\end{equation}
Let $M$ be an $A_\mathfrak{p}$-module
generated by a finite set $\{m_{\x} \}_{\x \in X}$, namely
\[
M=\sum_{\x \in X} m_{\x} A_\mathfrak{p}. \]
From equalities \eqref{eq:=0} and \eqref{eq:f_x(y)}, for each $\y \in X$,
\[
m_{\y} f_{\y}(\y)= - \sum_{\y \ne \x \in X} m_{\x} f_{\x}(\y) \in \mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}M.
\]
Since $f_{\y}(\y) \in A_{\mathfrak{p}} \setminus \mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}$ from equality \eqref{eq:f_x(x)}, it follows that $f_{\y}(\y) \in A_{\mathfrak{p}}^\times$ and
\[
m_{\y} = - \sum_{\y \ne \x \in X} m_{\x} f_{\x}(\y)(f_{\y}(\y))^{-1} \in \mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}M.
\]
This implies that $M \subset \mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}M$, and hence
$M = \mathfrak{p}A_{\mathfrak{p}}M$.
By Nakayama's lemma, $M=\{0\}$ and $m_{\x}=0$ for each $ \x \in X$.
Therefore $\{f_{\x}\}_{\x \in X}$ is linearly independent, and
\[
|X| =|\{f_{\x}\}_{\x \in X}| \leq \dim P_s(\mathbb{R}^d)=\binom{d+s}{s} +\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}
\]
as desired.
\end{proof}
\begin{corollary} \label{coro:modp}
Let $X$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}^d$, and $\mathcal{O}_K$ the ring of integers of an algebraic number field $K$.
Let $\mathfrak{p}$ be a prime ideal of $\mathcal{O}_K$.
Suppose $D(X) \subset\mathcal{O}_K$.
If there exist $a_1,\ldots, a_s \in \mathcal{O}_K$ distinct modulo $\mathfrak{p}$ such that
\begin{enumerate}
\item for each $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$, $a_i \not \equiv 0 \pmod{\mathfrak{p}}$ and
\item for each $\alpha \in D(X)$, there exists $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$ such that $\alpha \equiv a_i \pmod{\mathfrak{p}}$,
\end{enumerate}
then
\[
|X| \leq \binom{d+s}{s}+\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}.
\]
\end{corollary}
\begin{proof}
Since $A=\mathcal{O}_K \subset A_{\mathfrak{p}}$ and $A/\mathfrak{p} \cong A_\mathfrak{p}/\mathfrak{p} A_{\mathfrak{p}}$,
this corollary is immediate from Theorem~\ref{thm:main}.
\end{proof}
\begin{example}
For $X=\{(0,0),(1,0), (-\sqrt{3}/2,1/2),(-\sqrt{3}/2,-1/2)\} \subset \mathbb{R}^2$, the squared distances are $D(X)=\{1,2+\sqrt{3}\}$.
We take the algebraic number field $K=\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{3})$.
Then the ring of integers is $\mathcal{O}_K=\mathbb{Z}+\sqrt{3}\mathbb{Z}$, and $\mathfrak{p}=(1+\sqrt{3})$ is a prime ideal of $\mathcal{O}_K$.
Since $1\equiv 2+\sqrt{3} \pmod{\mathfrak{p}}$ holds,
we have $|X| \leq \binom{d+1}{1}+\binom{d}{0}=4$. The set $X$ is an example attaining the upper bound in Corollary~\ref{coro:modp}.
\end{example}
We can prove a similar theorem to Theorem~\ref{thm:main} for an ideal $I \subset \mathcal{O}_K$ which may not be prime as follows.
\begin{theorem}\label{thm:any_ideal}
Let $X$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}^d$, and $A=\mathcal{O}_K$ the ring of integers of an algebraic number field $K$.
Let $I$ be an ideal of $A$, and $I=\mathfrak{p}_1^{\lambda_1} \cdots \mathfrak{p}_r^{\lambda_r}$ the prime decomposition of $I$.
Let $A_{I}=S^{-1}A=\{a/s \mid a \in A, s \in S\}$, where $S=\bigcup_{R \in (A/I)^\times} R$.
Suppose $D(X) \subset A_{I}$.
If there exist $a_1,\ldots, a_s \in A_I$ distinct modulo $I A_{I}$ such that
\begin{enumerate}
\item for each $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$, $a_i \in A_I^\times$ and
\item for each $\alpha \in D(X)$, there exists $i \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$ such that $\alpha \equiv a_i \pmod{I A_{I}}$,
\end{enumerate}
then
\[
|X| \leq \binom{d+s}{s}+\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}.
\]
\end{theorem}
\begin{proof}
The proof is similar to that of Theorem~\ref{thm:main}, but we use
$\mathfrak{p}_1\cdots \mathfrak{p}_r A_I$ instead of $\mathfrak{p} A_\mathfrak{p}$ as the ideal that is contained in all maximal ideals in Nakayama's lemma.
\end{proof}
For Theorem \ref{thm:any_ideal}, we must choose squared distances $a_i$ from $A_I^\times$. Such distances $a_i$ can be expressed by $a_i=s_1/s_2$ for some $s_1,s_2 \in S=\bigcup_{R \in (A/I)^\times} R$.
Since $S \subset \bigcup_{R \in (A/\mathfrak{p}_j)^\times} R$ for any $j$, the squared distances $a_i$ are also elements of $A_{\mathfrak{p}_j}^\times=A\setminus \mathfrak{p}_j$.
The natural homomorphisms
\begin{align*}
A_I/IA_I &\rightarrow A_I/\mathfrak{p}_1^{\lambda_1} A_I \times
\cdots \times A_I/ \mathfrak{p}_r^{\lambda_r}A_I\\
&\rightarrow A_I/\mathfrak{p}_1 A_I \times
\cdots \times A_I/ \mathfrak{p}_r A_I\\
&\rightarrow A_{\mathfrak{p}_1}/\mathfrak{p}_1 A_{\mathfrak{p}_1} \times
\cdots \times A_{\mathfrak{p}_r}/ \mathfrak{p}_r A_{\mathfrak{p}_r}
\end{align*}
imply that the number of squared distances distinct modulo $IA_I$ is greater than or equal to that modulo $\mathfrak{p}_i A_{\mathfrak{p}_i}$ for any $i\in \{1,\ldots, r\}$.
Therefore, Theorem \ref{thm:main} corresponding to the prime-ideal version gives the strongest upper bound for any ideal under our condition.
\section{LRS type theorem} \label{sec:4}
We now generalize the LRS type theorem proved in \cite{N11} as follows. The absolute bound $|X|\leq \binom{d+s}{s}$ is improved by this generalization.
\begin{theorem} \label{thm:LRS}
Suppose $s\geq 2$.
Let $X$ be an $s$-distance set in $\mathbb{R}^d$ and $N=\dim P_{s-1}(\mathbb{R}^d)=\binom{d+s-1}{s-1}+\binom{d+s-2}{s-2}$.
If $|X| \geq N+(N+1)/t$ for some $t \in \mathbb{N}$, then
\begin{equation*} \label{eq:K_j}
K_j=\prod_{i=1, i\ne j}^s \frac{\alpha_i}{\alpha_i-\alpha_j}
\end{equation*}
is an algebraic integer of degree at most $t$ for each $j \in \{1,\ldots,s \}$.
\end{theorem}
\begin{proof}
Fix $j \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$. Define the polynomial
\[
f(\x, \boldsymbol{\xi})=\prod_{i=1,i\ne j}^s \frac{\alpha_i-||\x-\boldsymbol{\xi}||^2}{\alpha_i-\alpha_j}
\]
for each $\x \in X$.
Since $f(\x,\boldsymbol{\xi}) \in P_{s-1}(\mathbb{R}^d)$,
the rank of the matrix $M=(f(\x,\y))_{\x,\y \in X}$ is at most $N$ \cite{N11}.
The matrix can be expressed by
\[
M=K_j I + A_j,
\]
where $I$ is the identity matrix and $A_j$ is a $(0,1)$-matrix with off diagonals.
Since the size of $M$ is at least $N+(N+1)/t>N$, the matrix has $0$ eigenvalue whose multiplicity is at least $(N+1)/t$. This implies $-K_j$ is the eigenvalue of $A_j$, and hence $K_j$ is an algebraic integer.
Assume $K_j$ is an algebraic integer of degree larger than $t$.
Then the number of the conjugates of $-K_j$ is at least $t$, and the conjugates are also eigenvalues of $A_j$.
Since $A_j$ has the eigenvalue $-K_j$ with multiplicity at least $(N+1)/t$, the size of $A_j$ is at least $(t+1)(N+1)/t=N+1+(N+1)/t$, which contradicts our assumption.
Therefore $K_j$ is an algebraic integer of degree at most $t$.
\end{proof}
For $t=1$, the values $K_j$ are integers under the condition in Theorem~\ref{thm:LRS}, which is the previous result proved in \cite{N11}.
The following corollaries are immediate from Theorem~\ref{thm:LRS}.
\begin{corollary}
If $K_j$ is not an algebraic integer for some $j \in \{1,\ldots, s\}$, then $|X| \leq~N$.
\end{corollary}
\begin{corollary}\label{coro:imp}
Suppose $K_j$ is an algebraic integer for each $j \in \{1,\ldots,s\}$.
Let $t$ be the maximum value of the degrees of $K_j$.
If $t>1$ holds, then $|X| < N+(N+1)/(t-1)$.
\end{corollary}
Corollary \ref{coro:imp} is an improvement of the absolute bound for $s$-distance sets with the LRS ratios.
If there exist $\alpha_i,\alpha_j \in D(X)\subset \mathcal{O}_K$ such that $\alpha_i$ is congruent to $\alpha_j$ modulo some prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}$ and $\alpha \not \equiv 0 \pmod{\mathfrak{p}}$ for each $\alpha \in D(X)$, then the LRS ratio $K_j$ is not an algebraic integer. Indeed, if $K_j \in \mathcal{O}_K$, then
\begin{equation} \label{eq:no}
0\equiv K_j\prod_{i\ne j}(\alpha_i-\alpha_j) = \prod_{i \ne j} \alpha_i \not \equiv 0 \pmod{\mathfrak{p}},
\end{equation}
which is a contradiction.
When $K_j$ is not an algebraic integer for some $j$, we obtain the bound $|X|\leq N$ by Theorem~\ref{thm:LRS}, and we may obtain a better bound depending on the number of the elements of $D(X)$ distinct modulo $\mathfrak{p}$.
The results proved in this paper -- mod-$\mathfrak{p}$ bound and LRS type theorem-- are analogously obtained for the sphere $S^{d-1}$ \cite{DGS77}, several projective spaces \cite{DL98,L92}, or $Q$-polynomial association schemes \cite{D73,DL98}.
For spherical case, the LRS type theorem with $\mathcal{O}_K=\mathbb{Z}$ is useful to determine largest spherical $s$-distance sets for $s=2,3$. In \cite{GY18,MN11},
several largest $s$-distance sets are determined by a computer assistance.
The possibilities of choices of integers $K_i$ are finite, and we can take the finite choices of distances from $K_i$. Reducing the number of the possible distances is
helpful to cut the computational cost by a computer.
However, Equation~\eqref{eq:no} implies that it is impossible to reduce the choices of distances by our results.
\begin{remark}
Akihiro Munemasa, one of the editors of the journal, communicated to the author the following idea to prove
Theorem \ref{thm:main} without the use of Nakayama's lemma.
Let $f_{\x}(\boldsymbol{\xi})$ be the same as in the proof of Theorem~\ref{thm:main}.
We consider the matrix $M=(f_{\x} (\y))_{\x,\y \in X}$, where $X$ satisfies the condition of the theorem.
In order to prove the linear independence of $\{f_{\x} \}_{\x \in X}$, it suffices to show that the determinant of $M$ is non-zero. The entries of $M$ are elements of $A_\mathfrak{p}$,
and $M$ is congruent to some diagonal matrix modulo $\mathfrak{p} A_{\mathfrak{p}}$ whose diagonal entries are units in $A_\mathfrak{p}$. The determinant $M$ is not congruent to 0 modulo $\mathfrak{p} A_{\mathfrak{p}}$, in particular, it is non-zero.
\end{remark}
\longthanks{The author thanks Akihiro Munemasa for providing the idea of an alternative proof of Theorem \ref{thm:main} as editor's comments.
The author is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 18K03396, 19K03445, 20K03527, and 22K03402. }
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